297. The Prague Spring: Scholasticism Across Europe

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New ideas and and new universities in Italy and greater Germany including Vienna and Prague, where Jan Hus carries on the radical ideas of Wyclif.



Further Reading

• M.J.F.M. Hoenen and P.J.J.M. Bakker (eds), Philosophie und Theologie des ausgehenden Mittelalters: Marsilius von Inghen und das Denken seiner Zeit (Leiden: 2000).

• J. Ijsewijn and J. Paquet (eds), The Universities in the Late Middle Ages (Leuven: 1978).

• J.M. Kittelson and P.J. Transue (eds), Rebirth, Reform and Resilience: Universities in Transition, 1300-1700 (Columbus: 1984).

• J.H. Overfield, Humanism and Scholasticism in Late Medieval Germany (Princeton: 1984).

• H. Rashdall, The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, 3 vols (Oxford: 1936).

• M.H. Shank, “Unless You Believe, You Shall Not Understand”: Logic, University, and Society in Late Medieval Vienna (Princeton: 1988).

• N. Siriasi, Arts and Sciences at Padua: the Studium of Padua Before 1350 (Toronto: 1973).

• F. Šmahel, Die Prager Universität im Mittelalter: Charles University in the Middle Ages (Leiden: 2007).

Stanford Encyclopedia articles on Albert of Saxony, Gregory of Rimini, Paul of Venice, and Marsilius of Inghen.


Otter Bob on 11 March 2018

This Year

Happy 46th Birthday--------Spring Chicken!

In reply to by Otter Bob

Peter Adamson on 11 March 2018

Aging gracefully

Ha! Worked out the math, did you? But my birthday isn't until August, so you have time to shop for a present.

In reply to by Peter Adamson

Otter Bob on 11 March 2018


If I only knew the particular day in August, a little something might be arranged as a way for so many of us to say "Thank You" for this great podcast.  But I'd have to get out my German dictionary and do a little investigation on certain Munich shops.  For privacy concerns on your birth date, if you don't have it, Julian has my email address.

This episode covers so many issues (look at all the Themes mentioned) I wouldn't know where to begin.  But since we still have enough of our last snow left for some Nordic skiing, I'm out of here.

John Thomas on 12 March 2018

Oxford Realism

Just out of curiosity, what exactly is Oxford realism? I have heard that time being used here and there. Is it same as metaphysical realism? Was John Wycliffe and Duns Scotus the early proponents of Oxford realism?

In reply to by John Thomas

Peter Adamson on 12 March 2018

Oxford realism

As I understand it, it relates not to Scotus who is earlier but to Wyclif and similarly minded people around Europe (not only in England). So for instance Paul of Venice and several other scholastics of the early 15th c.

In reply to by Peter Adamson

John Thomas on 13 March 2018

Re-Oxford Realism

Thanks for the reply. I appreciate it. A google search for Paul of Venice also gave me the possible answer for what Oxford realism could be (Wikipedia entry on Paul of Venice says: "With regard to the problem of universals, he adhered to realism, since he maintained that universal essences are real entities.")

In reply to by John Thomas

Peter Adamson on 13 March 2018

Paul of Venice

Actually a great resource would be the Stanford Encyclopedia page on him, scroll up and you'll see the link under further reading.

There is a canal or gondolier joke in here somewhere but I'm not sure what it is.

Epistemology on 16 March 2018


Hey Peter,

Could you recommend any books, podcasts or YouTube lectures with which I can get the basics themes, terminology and debates within epistemology?
I'm looking into religious epistemology (specifically Christian epistemology) and of like to get a better grasp of the field.

I hope this question isn't too broad.


In reply to by Epistemology

Peter Adamson on 17 March 2018


Well, contemporary epistemology is not my field but I would suggest starting with the Stanford Encyclopedia page on the topic. The bibliography at the end also has lots of suggested reading.

Jose on 10 March 2019


Will you be covering the goings on in Spain and Portugal also? It would be interesting to know what the masters at Salamanca and Coimbra were doing, especially given their closeness to the Islamic world, as well as the influence of enlightened monarchs like Alfonso X of Castile. Thanks!

In reply to by Jose

Peter Adamson on 10 March 2019


Yes but this will not be covered for a while, as my plan is to do the Italian Renaissance as its own series and then look at developments in northern Europe (the northern Renaissance and Reformation) before looking at these Iberian figures in the context of the counter-reformation. But I will certainly give it significant coverage when the time comes!

In reply to by Peter Adamson

Jose on 17 March 2019

Looking forward! Thanks. 

Looking forward! Thanks. 

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