The Catholic Reformation

In this final series covering the 15-16th centuries, we turn our attention to philosophy shaped by the Catholic response to the Reformation, often called the "Counter-Reformation." We'll mostly find ourselves in Spain and Portugal, considering developments within scholastic philosophy from authors like Suárez, Molina, and the Coimbran commentators. Topics here will include the theory of natural law, the concept of "middle knowledge," and innovations in metaphysics. We'll also have a broader look at Thomism across Europe, touching on figures like Cajetan. Other topics connected to the Iberian peninsula will include the Inquisition, the Valladoid debate over colonialism, Spanish humanism and mysticism, and literature and art, with episodes on Cervantes and Velázquez. We'll finish off the whole era by returning to Italy and considering Galileo again, as a transition to the 17th century.

Further Reading

• R. Bireley, The Refashioning of Catholicism 1450-1700 (Basingstoke: 1999).

• J. Cowans, Early Modern Spain: a Documentary History (Philadelphia: 2003).

• J. Delumeau, Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire: A New View of the Counter- Reformation, trans. J. Moiser (London: 1977).

• L.A. Homza, Religious Authority in the Spanish Renaissance (Baltimore: 2000).

• H. Kallendorf (ed.), A Companion to the Spanish Renaissance (Leiden: 2019).

• T.F. Mayer (ed.), Reforming Reformation (London: 2012).

• M. Mullet, The Catholic Reformation (London: 1999).

• R. Po-chia Hsia, The World of Catholic Renewal, 1540–1770 (Cambridge: 1998).

• J. Tellkamp (ed.), Companion to Early Modern Spanish Imperial Political and Social Thought (Leiden: 2020).

• A.D. Wright, The Counter-Reformation: Catholic Europe and the Non-Christian World (London: 2017).

438. Don't Give Up Pope: Catholic Reformation

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How the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reformation created a context for philosophy among Catholics, especially in Spain, Portugal, and Italy.

439. Cancel Culture: The Inquisition

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How religious persecution and censorship shaped the context of philosophy in Catholic Europe in the sixteenth century.