52. Great White North: Emigration to Canada

Posted on 10 May 2020

Mary Ann Shadd and Samuel Ringgold Ward reflect on what Canada can offer African Americans, differing on the problem of racism.

Further Reading

• M.A. Shadd, A Plea for Emigration; or Notes of Canada West, ed. Phanuel Antwi (Peterborough: 2016).

• S.R. Ward, Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro (London: 1855).


• E.L. Ball, To Live an Antislavery Life: Personal Politics and the Antebellum Black Middle Class (Athens: 2012), chapter 2.

• G.E. Clarke, Odysseys Home: Mapping African-Canadian Literature (Toronto: 2002).

• E-A. Jabouin, "Writing (Black) Canadian Citizenship: Mary Ann Shadd Cary, the Political Imaginary, and Experience in 19th-Century Canada West," in N. Reid-Maroney, B. Ebanda de B'beri, and W. Thomas Bernard (eds), Women in the "Promised Land": Essays in African Canadian History (Toronto: 2018), 13-42.

• J. Rhodes, Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century (Bloomington: 1998).

• W. Siemerling, The Black Atlantic Reconsidered: Black Canadian Writing, Cultural History, and the Presence of the Past (Montreal: 2015).

• N. Solomon, "Calling to Her Brethren: Immigration, Race, and Female Representation in the Life and Writings of Mary Ann Shadd Cary," in Women in the "Promised Land": Essays in African Canadian History, 211-230.  

• E. Tamarkin, "Black Anglophilia; or, The Sociability of Antislavery," American Literary History 14 (2002): 444-478. 

• R. Walcott, "'Who is She and What is She to You?': Mary Ann Shadd Cary and the (Im)possibility of Black/Canadian Studies," in R. Walcott (ed), Rude: Contemporary Black Canadian Cultural Criticism (Toronto: 2000), 27-47.

• R.W. Winks, The Blacks in Canada: A History, 2d ed. (Montreal: 1997). 


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