52. Great White North: Emigration to Canada

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Mary Ann Shadd and Samuel Ringgold Ward reflect on what Canada can offer African Americans, differing on the problem of racism.



Further Reading

• N.D. Dennie (ed.), Mary Ann Shadd Cary: Essential Writings of a Nineteenth-Century Black Radical Feminist (Oxford: 2023).

• M.A. Shadd, A Plea for Emigration; or Notes of Canada West, ed. Phanuel Antwi (Peterborough: 2016).

• S.R. Ward, Autobiography of a Fugitive Negro (London: 1855).


• E.L. Ball, To Live an Antislavery Life: Personal Politics and the Antebellum Black Middle Class (Athens: 2012), chapter 2.

• G.E. Clarke, Odysseys Home: Mapping African-Canadian Literature (Toronto: 2002).

• E-A. Jabouin, "Writing (Black) Canadian Citizenship: Mary Ann Shadd Cary, the Political Imaginary, and Experience in 19th-Century Canada West," in N. Reid-Maroney, B. Ebanda de B'beri, and W. Thomas Bernard (eds), Women in the "Promised Land": Essays in African Canadian History (Toronto: 2018), 13-42.

• J. Rhodes, Mary Ann Shadd Cary: The Black Press and Protest in the Nineteenth Century (Bloomington: 1998).

• W. Siemerling, The Black Atlantic Reconsidered: Black Canadian Writing, Cultural History, and the Presence of the Past (Montreal: 2015).

• N. Solomon, "Calling to Her Brethren: Immigration, Race, and Female Representation in the Life and Writings of Mary Ann Shadd Cary," in Women in the "Promised Land": Essays in African Canadian History, 211-230.  

• E. Tamarkin, "Black Anglophilia; or, The Sociability of Antislavery," American Literary History 14 (2002): 444-478. 

• R. Walcott, "'Who is She and What is She to You?': Mary Ann Shadd Cary and the (Im)possibility of Black/Canadian Studies," in R. Walcott (ed), Rude: Contemporary Black Canadian Cultural Criticism (Toronto: 2000), 27-47.

• R.W. Winks, The Blacks in Canada: A History, 2d ed. (Montreal: 1997). 


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