59. Frowning at Froudacious Fabrications: J.J. Thomas and F.A. Durham

Posted on 20 September 2020

John Jacob Thomas argues for self-government in the English colonies of the Caribbean but his fellow Trinidadian Frederick Alexander Durham recommends repatriation to Africa instead.

Further Reading

• F.A. Durham, The Lone-Star of Liberia; Being the Outcome of Reflections on Our Own People (London: 1892).

• J.J. Thomas, Froudacity: West Indian Fables by James Anthony Froude Explained by J.J. Thomas (London: 1889).


• S.R. Cudjoe, Beyond Boundaries: The Intellectual Tradition of Trinidad and Tobago in the Nineteenth Century (Wellesley: 2003).

• J.A. Froude, The English in the West Indies or The Bow of Ulysses (London: 1888).

• C.L.R. James, "The West Indian Intellectual," in J.J. Thomas, Froudacity (London: 1969), 23-49.

• W. Laird-Clowes, Black America: A Study of the Ex-Slave and His Late Master (London: 1891).

• R. Lewis, "J.J. Thomas and Political Thought in the Caribbean," Caribbean Quarterly 36 (1990): 46-58.

• M. Sherwood, Origins of Pan-Africanism: Henry Sylvester Williams, Africa, and the African Diaspora (London: 2010).

• F.L. Smith, Creole Recitations: John Jacob Thomas and Colonial Formation in the Late Nineteenth-Century Caribbean (Charlottesville: 2002).

• Donald Wood, "John Jacob Thomas," in J.J. Thomas, Froudacity (London: 1969), 9-22.


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