57. Race First, Then Party: T. Thomas Fortune
T. Thomas Fortune uses newspaper editorials to put forth a theory of civil rights and sets out a plan of political action for protecting them.
• S.L. Alexander (ed.), T. Thomas Fortune the Afro-American Agitator (Gainesville: 2008).
• T.T. Fortune, Black and White: Land, Labor, and Politics in the South (New York: 1884).
• S.D. Carle, “Debunking the Myth of Civil Rights Liberalism: Visions of Racial Justice in the Thought of T. Thomas Fortune, 1880-1890,” Fordham Law Review 77 (2009): 1479-533.
• S.D. Carle, Defining the Struggle: National Organizing for Racial Justice, 1880-1915 (Oxford: 2013), ch.2.
• T.J. Curry, "The Fortune of Wells: Ida B. Wells-Barnett's Use of T. Thomas Fortune's Philosophy of Social Agitation as a Prolegomenon to Militant Civil Rights Activism," Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 48 (2012): 456-482.
• B.R. Justesen, Broken Brotherhood: The Rise and Fall of the National Afro-American Council (Carbondale: 2008).
• S.L. Piott, Americans in Dissent: Thirteen Influential Social Critics of the Nineteenth Century (Lanham: 2014), ch. 9.
• E.L. Thornbrough, T. Thomas Fortune: Militant Journalist (Chicago: 1972).