223. Straw Men: The Rise of the Universities
The emergence of universities in Paris, Oxford, Bologna and elsewhere provide the main setting for medieval philosophy in the 13th century and beyond.
• A.B. Cobban, The Medieval Universities: their Development and Organization (London: 1975).
• W.J. Courtenay and J. Miethke (eds), Universities and Schooling in Medieval Society (Leiden: 2000).
• F.C. Ferruolo, The Origins of the University: the Schools of Paris and Their Critics, 1100-1215 (Stanford: 1985).
• G. Leff, Paris and Oxford Universities in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries: an Institutional and Intellectual History (New York: 1968).
• O. Pedersen, The First Universities: Studium Generale and the Origins of University Education in Europe (Cambridge: 1997).
• H. de Ridder-Symoens (ed.), A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages (Cambridge: 1992).
• I.P. Wei, Intellectual Culture in Medieval Paris: Theologians and the University, c. 1100-1330 (Cambridge: 2012).