101. Crossing Paths: the Last Years of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr

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After 1963, the views of Malcolm X and MLK came closer together, on topics including internationalism, political engagement, and economics.



Further Reading

• M.L. G. Breitman (ed.), Malcolm X Speaks: Selected Speeches and Statements (New York: 1965).

• M.L. King, Jr., A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings and Speeches, ed. J.M. Washington (San Francisco: 1991).

M. Marable (ed.), The Portable Malcolm X Reader (New York: 2013).


• L.V. Baldwin, “Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr: What They Thought About Each Other,” Islamic Studies 25 (1986), 395-416.

• J.H. Cone, Martin & Malcolm & America: a Dream or a Nightmare (Maryknoll: 1991).

• P.E. Joseph, The Sword and the Shield: The Revolutionary Lives of Malcolm X and Martin Luther King Jr. (New York: 2020).


Adam R Podlofsky on 29 May 2022

Nation of Islam

Great episode. Since he was mentioned I was wondering and asking if you are going to cover Elijah Muhammad, Fard, and/or The Nation of Islam. I will admit upfront to having considerable prejudices against  NOI for what looks to me like virulent antisemitism, but I would still be keenly interested in a discussion of their history, beliefs, and influence on Africana philosophy. 

In reply to by Adam R Podlofsky

Peter Adamson on 30 May 2022


Good question; we considered that but decided that we probably had enough on the NoI by giving thorough coverage of Malcolm X. One of many places where more could have been said! (Though maybe not about Fard, I gather he is quite a mysterious figure about whom little is securely known.)

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Africana Philosophy in the Twentieth Century

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